Yesterday I introduced the notion of duality for two stochastic processes. My two goals for this post are to elaborate on the idea of why duality is useful, which we touched on in passing in the previous part, and to discuss duality of interacting particle systems. In the latter case, there are often nice ways to consider the forward and backward processes together that make the relation somewhat more natural.
The starting point is to assume a finite state space. This will be reasonable when we start to consider interacting particle systems, eg on . As before, call the spaces R and S, and a duality function H(x,y). Since the state-spaces are finite, it is entirely natural to think of this as a matrix, and hence as an operator. Of course, a function defined on a finite state-space can be thought of as a vector, so it is clear what this operator will actually operate on. (I’ve chosen H rather than h for the duality function so it is more clear that it is acting as an operator here.)
We have some choice about which way round to define it, but for now let’s say that given some function f(.) on S
Note that this is a) exactly the definition of matrix (left-)multiplication; b) We should think of Hf as a function on R – perhaps (Hf)(x) might be more clear? and c) the operator H acts . If we want the corresponding operator , we simply multiply by H on the right instead.
But note also that the generator of a finite state-space Markov process is also a matrix, indeed a Q-matrix. So if we take our definition of the duality function as
which, importantly, holds for all x,y, we can convert this into an algebraic form as
In the same way that n-step transition probabilities for a discrete-time Markov chain are given by the product of the one-step transition matrix, general time transition probabilities for a continuous-time Markov chain are given by exponents of the Q-matrix. In particular, if X and Y have transition kernels P and Q respectively, then , and after doing some manipulation, we can show that
also. This is really useful as in general we would hope that H might be invertible, from which we derive
So this is a powerful statement about the relationship between the evolutions of the two processes. In particular, it shows a correspondence (given by H) between left eigenvectors of P, and right eigenvectors of Q, and vice versa naturally.
The reason why this is useful rather than merely cute, is that when we re-interpret everything in terms of the original stochastic processes, we get a map between stationary distributions of X, and harmonic functions of Y. Stationary distributions are often hard to describe in any terms other than the left-1-eigenvector, or through some convergence property that is typically hard to work with. Harmonic functions, on the other hard, can be much more tractable. An example of a harmonic function is the survival probability started from a given state. This is useful for specifying the stationary distribution, but perhaps even more so for describing properties of the set of stationary distributions. In particular, uniqueness and existence are carried across this equivalence. So, for example, if the dual does not survive almost surely, then this says the only stationary measure is zero, and so the process is transient or similar.
Jan Swart’s course in Luminy last October dealt with duality, with a focus mainly on interacting particle systems. There are a couple of themes I want to talk about, without going into too much detail.
A typical interacting particle system will take place on a locally finite graph. At each vertex, there is either a particle, or there isn’t. Particles move between adjacent vertices, and sometimes interact with particles at adjacent vertices. These interactions might involve branching or coalescence. We will discuss shortly the set of possible forms such interaction might take. The state space is , with G the underlying graph. Then given a state, there is some set of actions which might happen next, and we consider the possibility that they happen with exponential rates.
At this stage, it seems like the initial configuration is important, as this affects what set of moves can happen immediately, and also thereafter. It is not clear how quickly this dependence fades. One useful idea is not to restrict ourselves to interactions involving the particles currently present in the system, but instead to consider a Poisson process of all possible interactions. Only the moves actually permitted by the current state will happen, but having this extra information allows for coupling between initial configurations.
It’s probably easier to consider a concrete example. The picture below shows the set-up for a branching random walk up an integer lattice. Each particle moves to one of the two state directly above its current state, or it branches and sends particles to both of them.In the diagram, we have glued arrows onto every state at every time, which tells us what to do if there is a particle there at each time. As a coupling, we can now think of the process as a deterministic walk through a random environment. The environment is given by some probability space, which in continuous time might have the appearance of a Poisson process on the set of ‘moves’, and the initial condition of the walk is up to us.
We can generalise this to a broader class of interacting particle systems. If we want all interactions to be between pairs of adjacent states, there are six possible things which could happen:
- Annihilation: two adjacent particles destroy each other. ( 11 -> 00 )
- Branching: one particle becomes two particles. ( 01 or 10 -> 11 )
- Coalescence: two particles merge. ( 11 -> 01 or 10 )
- Death: A particle is removed. ( 01 or 10 -> 00 )
- Exclusion: a particle moves. ( 01 -> 10 )
- Birth: a particle is created. ( 00 -> 01 or 10 )
For now we exclude the possibility of birth. Note that the way we have set this up involving two-site interactions excludes the possibility of a particle trying to move to an already-occupied site.
Let us say that in process X the rates at which each of these events happen are a, b, c, d and e, taking advantage of the helpful choice of naming. There is some flexibility about whether the rates are the same between every pair of vertices of note. For this post we assume that they are. Then it is a result of Lloyd and Sudbury that given some real , the process X’ with corresponding rates given by:
is dual to X, with duality function given by , for Y and Z possible states.
I want to make two comments:
1) This illustrates one of the differences between the dual and the time-reversal. It is clear that the time-reversal of branching is coalescence and vice versa, and exclusion is invariant under time-reversal. But the time-reversal of death is definitely birth, but there is no birth component in the dual of a process which features death. I don’t have a strong intuition for why this is the case, but see the final paragraph of this post. However, at least it seems plausible that both processes might simultaneously be recurrent, since in the dual, both the branching rate and the death rate have increased by the same amount.
2) This settles one problem of uniqueness of the dual that I mentioned last time, since we can vary q and get a different dual to the same original process. For example, in the voter model, we have b=d=1, and a=c=e=0, as in any update, the opinions of neighbours which were previously different become the same. Anyway, for any there is a choice of dual, where at the extremes q=0 corresponds to coalescing random walk, and q=-1 to annihilating random walk. (Note that the duality function for q=0 is the indicator function that the systems are different.)
As a final observation without much justification, suppose we add in arrows in the gaps of the branching random walk picture we had earlier, and direct them in the opposite direction. It turns out that this corresponds precisely to the dual of the process. This provides an appealing visual idea of why the dual of branching might be death. It also supports the general idea based on the coupling described earlier that the dual process is in some sense a deterministic walk in the opposite direction through the random environment specified by the original process.
J.M. Swart – Duality and Intertwining of Markov Chains (mainly using chapters 2.1 and 2.7)
Thanks for Daniel Straulino for direction towards the branching random walk duality example.